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Follow the Drinking Gourd:
A Cultural History

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Introduction

The American folksong Follow the Drinking Gourd was first published in 1928. The Drinking Gourd song was supposedly used by an Underground Railroad operative to encode escape instructions and a map. These directions then enabled fleeing slaves to make their way north from Mobile, Alabama to the Ohio River and freedom. Taken at face value, the "drinking gourd" refers to the hollowed out gourd used by slaves (and other rural Americans) as a water dipper. But here it is used as a code name for the Big Dipper star formation, which points to Polaris, the Pole Star, and North.

In the ensuing 80 years, the Drinking Gourd played an important role in the Civil Rights and folk revival movements of the 1950s and 1960s, and in contemporary elementary school education. Much of the Drinking Gourd's enduring appeal derives from its perceived status as a unique, historical remnant harkening back to the pre-Civil War South no other such map songs survive. But re-examining the Drinking Gourd song as history rather than folklore raises many questions. And the Drinking Gourd as it appears in roughly 200 recordings, dozens of songbooks, several award-winning children's books and many other places is surely not "traditional." The signature line in the chorus, "for the old man is awaitin' for to carry you to freedom," could not possibly have been sung by escaping slaves, because it was written by Lee Hays eighty years after the end of the Civil War. (1)

 

Contents

Collection Story
What the Lyrics Mean
Cultural History
The Song as History
Interpretation Over the Last Twenty Years
How Do We Know What We Know?
Afterword, or "Is This Song 'Authentic'"?
Appendices
Timeline and Gazetteer
The Recordings
Adult Books and Stage Play
Children's Books
Biographical Sketch of H.B. Parks
Teachers' Guide
Additional Materials for Teachers
Search Engine Analysis (ca. 2007)

About This Site
Media

Notes


Follow the Drinking Gourd, Texas Folklore Society, 1928

Follow the Drinking Gourd, Frances Gaither, 1940

Follow the Drinking Gourd, Foster and Larue, 1958

Follow the Drinking Gourd, Jeanette Winter, 1988

Follow the Drinking Gourd, Bernardine Connelly, 1997

Follow the Drinking Gourd: Home Page

 

Copyright 2008 - 2012, Joel Bresler.
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

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